Image: Anatolia after 188 BC, including ancient Cilicia, whence the pirates. This south coastal region of Asia Minor existed as a political entity from the Hittite era until the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, during the late Byzantine Empire. In early times, 16th–14th century BC, it was Kizzuwatna; 12th–8th century BC was Khilikku, Tabal, Quwê). The main languages were Luwian, Akkadian, Phoenician, Persian, and Armenian.
There were always pirates in the ancient world, but in the second half of the second century BCE, they became really dangerous and started to destabilize the Mediterranean world. Two factors contributed to their rise: the powerful Seleucid
empire, which had controlled the seas, started to disintegrate after c.150; also, the Roman elite had to buy slaves to work on the large plantations (latifundia
) in Italy. Although Rome had already sent a navy commanded by a praetor
named Marcus Antonius as early as 104 BCE, it refused to take real measures. It needed the pirates.
"The Darwinian human spiral has not changed human thinking all that much."
.Makers of Ancient Strategy: From the Persian Wars to the Fall of Rome
Kindle Edition, by Victor Davis Hanson
In this prequel to the now-classic Makers of Modern Strategy
, Victor Davis Hanson, a leading scholar of ancient military history, gathers prominent thinkers to explore key facets of warfare, strategy, and foreign policy in the Greco-Roman world. From the Persian Wars to the final defense of the Roman Empire, Makers of Ancient Strategy
demonstrates that the military thinking and policies of the ancient Greeks and Romans remain surprisingly relevant for understanding conflict in the modern world. https://www.amazon.com/Makers-Ancient-Strategy-Persian-Wars-ebook/dp/B003NX6KPA/ref=sr_1_1?keywords=Makers+of+Ancient+Strategy&qid=1566692404&s=digital-text&sr=1-1
The book reveals that much of the organized violence witnessed today--such as counterterrorism, urban fighting, insurgencies, preemptive war, and ethnic cleansing--has ample precedent in the classical era. The book examines the preemption and unilateralism used to instill democracy during Epaminondas's great invasion of the Peloponnesus in 369 BC, as well as the counterinsurgency and terrorism that characterized Rome's battles with insurgents such as Spartacus, Mithridates, and the Cilician pirates. The collection looks at the urban warfare that became increasingly common as more battles were fought within city walls, and follows the careful tactical strategies of statesmen as diverse as Pericles, Demosthenes, Alexander, Pyrrhus, Caesar, and Augustus. Makers of Ancient Strategy
shows how Greco-Roman history sheds light on wars of every age. In addition to the editor, the contributors are David L. Berkey, Adrian Goldsworthy, Peter J. Heather, Tom Holland, Donald Kagan, John W. I. Lee, Susan Mattern, Barry Strauss, and Ian Worthington.