Image: Logo of the Vedas. Mīmāṃsā (meaning: exegesis) is one of the astika schools. They believed the Vedas to be author-less and self-authenticating. They did not accept the Vedas as being composed by any ṛishi (saint), and considered them not to have been authored by anyone (apauruṣeya). They accepted the minor deities of the Vedas but resisted any notion of a Supreme Creator. Jaimini founded the Mīmāṃsā school around the Fourth Century BC.
Long before the European Enlightenment and the Darwinian revolution, which we often take to mark the birth of the modern revolt against religious explanations of the world, brave people doubted the power of the gods. Religion provoked scepticism in ancient Greece, and heretics argued that history must be understood as a result of human action rather than divine intervention. They devised theories of the cosmos based on matter, and notions of matter based on atoms. They developed mathematical tools that could be applied to the world around them and tried to understand that world in material terms. Their scepticism left a rich legacy of literature, philosophy, and science and was defended by such great writers as Epicurus, Lucretius, Cicero, and Lucian.
Tim Whitmarsh tells the story of the tension between orthodoxy and heresy with great panache, a story that ended—for the moment—with the imposition of Christianity on the Roman Empire in 313 CE.