2/2 1781: The Decisive Year of the Revolutionary War, by Robert Tonsetic.

Jan 19, 02:14 AM
Image:  The United States delegation at the Treaty of Paris included John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. Here they are depicted by Benjamin West in his 1783 American Commissioners of the Preliminary Peace Agreement with Great Britain. The British delegation refused to pose, and the painting was never completed.

The Treaty of Paris, in 1783, formally ended the American Revolutionary War, but it was the pivotal campaigns and battles of 1781 that decided the final outcome. Seventeen-eighty-one was one of those rare years in American history when the future of the nation hung by a thread, and only the fortitude, determination, and sacrifice of its leaders and citizenry ensured its survival. By 1781, America had been at war with the world's strongest empire for six years with no end in sight. British troops occupied key coastal cities, from New York to Savannah, and the Royal Navy prowled the waters off the American coast. The remaining Patriot forces hunkered down in the hinterland, making battle only at opportunities when British columns ventured near. 

After several harsh winters and the failure of the nascent government to adequately supply the troops, however, the American army was fast approaching the breaking point. The number of Continental soldiers had shrunk to fewer than 10,000, and the three-year enlistments of many of those remaining were about to expire. Mutinies began to emerge in George Washington's ranks, and it was only the arrival of French troops that provided a ray of hope for the American cause. 

In a shift of strategy, the British began to prioritize the south. After shattering the American army under Horatio Gates at Camden, South Carolina, the British army, under Lord Cornwallis, appeared unstoppable, and was poised to regain the Carolinas, Georgia, and Virginia for the Crown. Nonetheless, when General Nathanael Greene arrived to take command of Patriot forces in the South, he was able gradually to turn the tables. By dividing his own forces, he forced the British to divide theirs, dissipating their juggernaut and forcing Cornwallis to confront a veritable hydra of resistance. 

Seventeen-eighty-one was a year of battles, as the Patriot Morgan defeated the notorious Tarleton and his Loyal Legion at Cowpens. Then Greene suffered defeat at Guilford Courthouse, only to rally his forces and continue to fight on. While luring Cornwallis north, Greene was able to gather new strength and launch a counterattack, until it was Cornwallis who felt compelled to seek succor in Virginia. He marched his main army to Yorktown on the Peninsula, upon which the French fleet, the British fleet, Greene, Washington, and the French army under Rochambeau all converged. On October 19, 1781, Cornwallis surrendered his weary and bloodied army. 

In this audiobook, Robert Tonsetic provides a detailed analysis of the key battles and campaigns of 1781, supported by numerous eyewitness accounts from privates to generals in the American, French, and British armies. He also describes the diplomatic efforts under way in Europe during 1781, as well as the Continental Congress's actions to resolve the immense financial, supply, and personnel problems involved in maintaining an effective fighting army in the field.