Jupiter & Saturn 1of4: -- and the Building of the Solar System. Konstantin Batygin, California Institute of Technology. @Kbatygin @CalTech

Aug 03, 02:17 AM
Photo:Hubble's Jupiter and the Shrinking Great Red Spot
Image Credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble, OPAL Program, STScI; Processing: Karol Masztalerz
Explanation: What will become of Jupiter's Great Red Spot? Gas giant Jupiter is the solar system's largest world with about 320 times the mass of planet Earth. Jupiter is home to one of the largest and longest lasting storm systems known, the Great Red Spot (GRS), visible to the left. The GRS is so large it could swallow Earth, although it has been shrinking. Comparison with historical notes indicate that the storm spans only about one third of the surface area it had 150 years ago. NASA's Outer Planets Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) program has been monitoring the storm more recently using the Hubble Space Telescope. The featured Hubble OPAL image shows Jupiter as it appeared in 2016, processed in a way that makes red hues appear quite vibrant. Modern GRS data indicate that the storm continues to constrict its surface area, but is also becoming slightly taller, vertically. No one knows the future of the GRS, including the possibility that if the shrinking trend continues, the GRS might one day even do what smaller spots on Jupiter have done -- disappear completely.


 
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Jupiter & Saturn 1of4: -- and the Building of the Solar System. Konstantin Batygin, California Institute of Technology. @Kbatygin @CalTech

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.451.2589B

The early stages of dynamical evolution of planetary systems are often shaped by dissipative processes that drive orbital migration. In multi-planet systems, convergent amassing of orbits inevitably leads to encounters with rational period ratios, which may result in establishment of mean-motion resonances. The success or failure of resonant capture yields exceedingly different subsequent evolutions, and thus plays a central role in determining the ensuing orbital architecture of planetary systems. In this work, we employ an integrable Hamiltonian formalism for first order planetary resonances that allows both secondary bodies to have finite masses and eccentricities, and construct a comprehensive theory for resonant capture. Particularly, we derive conditions under which orbital evolution lies within the adiabatic regime, and provide a generalized criterion for guaranteed resonant locking as well as a procedure for calculating capture probabilities when capture is not certain. Subsequently, we utilize the developed analytical model to examine the evolution of Jupiter and Saturn within the protosolar nebula, and investigate the origins of the dominantly non-resonant orbital distribution of sub-Jovian extrasolar planets. Our calculations show that the commonly observed extrasolar orbital structure can be understood if planet pairs encounter mean-motion commensurabilities on slightly eccentric (e ˜ 0.02) orbits. Accordingly, we speculate that resonant capture among low-mass planets is typically rendered unsuccessful due to subtle axial asymmetries inherent to the global structure of protoplanetary discs.
Publication: 
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 451, Issue 3, p.2589-2609
Pub Date: August 2015DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1063 arXiv: arXiv:1505.01778 Bibcode: 2015MNRAS.451.2589B Keywords: 
  • methods: analytical;
 
  • celestial mechanics;
  • planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability;
  • Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics;
  • Mathematics - Dynamical Systems